The “Question-Based” Rebuttal

By: Alex Alifimoff, Stanford University 2015 There are a number of schools of thought on how to give proper APDA rebuttals. Being an excellent rebuttalist is a skill that most debaters work most of their careers to perfect, yet never fully achieve. I am certainly not an exception to this rule, and the style that […]

Leader of Opposition Constructive – Basics

By: Allison Douglis, Yale University 2015 The Leader of the Opposition’s Constructive The Leader of the Opposition’s Constructive, or the LOC, is an eight-minute speech that immediately follows the Prime Minister’s Constructive (PMC). As the second speech of the round, and the first speech for the opposition, it ideally should provide a clear, thorough, and […]

Introduction to Points of Clarification

By: Young Seol, Brown University 2014 Points of Clarification, more commonly known as POCs, are questions the Opposition team asks the Government team after case construct has been read but before the start of the actual Prime Minister’s Constructive (or PMC). According to a new rule, timing for the PMC generally does not start until […]

Points of Information

By: Alex Alifimoff, Stanford University 2015 Points of Information (often called POIs) in American Parliamentary Debate often seem supplementary, so they go unconsidered by the average novice debater. Yet, they’re actually one of the most important ways to remain in the debate when you aren’t speaking, and should never be taken lightly. This article won’t […]